NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is a coenzyme that is found in all living cells and is essential for many fundamental biological processes. NAD+ functions as a biological clock for age-associated gene expression.
Low levels of NAD+ are associated with accelerated aging, fatigue, weight gain and other metabolic issues, cardiovascular disease, impaired brain function, impaired immune function and increased inflammation.
The human body is designed to break down, die and make way for future generations. As the body ages, different genes are expressed and the deterioration of physical capacity, endurance and metabolism gradually occurs.
One of the key ways the body regulates age-associated gene expression is through the ratio of NAD+ to NADH. NAD+ levels decline naturally as we age, whereas NADH levels remain relatively constant. Therefore the ratio of NAD+ to NADH approximates age and determines age-associated gene expression.
By increasing levels of NAD+ above your baseline, effectively, you are manipulating the ratio of NAD+ to NADH and tricking your body into expressing the genes of a younger person.
NAD+ activates a class of seven genes (and their associated enzymes) called Sirtuins, which are master regulatory genes. Sirtuins turn off expression of certain genes that promote aging, including genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, fat synthesis and storage and insulin-level management.
With respect to aging in particular, NAD+ activates Sirtuins 1 and 3 (Sirt1 and Sirt3):
Sirt1, when activated by NAD+, activates genes:
- PGC-1alpha, which stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis (growth of new mitochondria);
- FOXO1, which reduces production of new fat cells;
- P53, an anti-cancer gene that prevents cells with damaged DNA from growing into tumors; and
- SREBP1c, which regulates blood sugar, fatty acid and fat production in response to insulin and controls cholesterol levels.
Sirt3, when activated by NAD+, activates genes:
- SOD2, a mitochondrial antioxidant; and
- LCAD, SDH and AceCS2, which are mitochondrial enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids and carbohydrates for ATP-generation (cellular energy generation).
NAD+ is also critical to PARP (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) activity. PARP is an enzyme that repairs damaged DNA. The level of PARP activity determines the maximum lifespan of both mammalian species and individuals. Humans have significantly higher levels of PARP activity than shorter lived mammals and long-lived individuals have higher levels of PARP activity. Increasing PARP activity through increased NAD+ is expected to increase lifespan.
NMN is a revolutionary advance in anti-aging. By boosting NAD+, NMN can literally turn back the clock on age-associated physiological decline. It is one of six powerful anti-aging ingredients in THRIVE GOLD, which is designed to change the way you age and help you to live vibrantly, longer. Read more about why NMN is the most effective supplement to boost NAD+ here.
Add THRIVE GOLD to your daily regimen today and change the way you live and age.